Much cultural destruction has happened at the hands of ISIS, most notably the damage caused in Palmyra.
But how do artists respond to this affront to cultural heritage?
In the case of Piers Secunda it's to create works using casts of actual bullet holes on ruins.
These replicas — on display at Jessica Carlisle Gallery from 15 April — carry a powerful message: with technology we can recreate some of the works before they were damaged by conflict and destruction.
Secunda is just one of the artists who has work on display at this exhibition covering photography, 3D printing and drawing. There's also video work with music by the legendary composer Ennio Morricone.
It coincides with a 3D replica of a Palmyran arch being erected in Trafalgar Square on 18 April.
The Missing: Rebuilding the Past is on at Jessica Carlisle Gallery, 2 Mandeville Road, W1U 2BF from 15 April-7 May. Entrance is free and the gallery is open Tuesday-Saturday, 12pm-6pm.
*The original article claimed in the image caption that the bullet holes are from Syria. This has been corrected as they are from Iraq.